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What is the difference between indoor volleyball and outdoor volleyball?

As this goes without saying, the main difference between outdoor volleyball and indoor volleyball are the locations in which the games are played; outdoor volleyball being played on a beach court, and indoor volleyball being played on an indoor court. While indoor volleyball requires 6 athletes with fixed positions from each team on the court at one time, outdoor volleyball (specifically beach volleyball) only requires 2, in most instances of competitive play. Other differences occur in areas such as the court

BEST OF:

Outdoor: Each match will be a best of three rally-scoring sets. 
Indoor:
Each match will be a best of five rally-scoring sets.

POINTS
Outdoor:
The first two sets are played to 21 points. The third set is played to 15.
Indoor: The first four sets are played to 25. The fifth set is played to 15.

COURT DIMENSIONS
Outdoor:
Sand courts are 16 meters by 8 meters.
Indoor: Indoor courts are 18 meters by 9 meters.

SIDE CHANGE
Outdoor:
A side change will take place every seven points in the first two sets and every five points in the third set. The side change will be direct without delay.
Indoor: A side change will occur after every game. In the fifth game, a side change occurs after one team gets to eight points.

SETTING SERVES
Outdoor:
It is not permitted to double contact the first ball if the ball is not hard-driven and if “finger action” is used. It is possible (but unlikely) that a serve could officially be “set” by the receiving team; however, this contact is judged with the same inspection as a normal set. 
Indoor:
It is now legal to double-contact any first team contact. To legally double a first ball when using finger action, you have to be defending a hard-driven attack. That means you are not receiving a serve. It also means you are defending an opponent’s attack on a ball that is moving fast enough that the referee can judge that you didn’t have time to play the ball any other way.

RESTRICTION ON SETTING THE BALL OVER THE NET
Outdoor:
Setting has to be perpendicular to your body. An exception is made if a teammate accidentally sets a ball over the net. 
Indoor:
There are no rules against it, as long as it not a carry or a throw.

TIPS/DINKS
Outdoor:
Tipping is illegal. Fingers can’t be used to tip a ball over the net. Palms, heel of the hand, locked straight fingers, gnarled fingers or the back of the hand can be used to dink the ball over for short shots. 
Indoor:
Fingers may be used to tip; hand should be above your head to avoid a carry or throw over the net.

WINNING
Outdoor and Indoor:
Teams must have a two-point advantage to win a set, and no point cap will be used.

Volleyball Violations

Like in any sports there are also violations committed in volleyball. This articles shows the violations during playing the volleyball:

Basic Violations in Volleyball

  1. Consecutive Contacts Players are not allowed to touch the ball two times in a row. However, a player may make consecutive contacts on the teams’ first team contact, provided the contacts occur during one action.
  2. Four Hits. It’s a violation for a team to hit the ball 4 times before returning it.
  3. Assisted Hit. It’s illegal for a player or any object to assist a teammate in playing the ball.
  4. Catch. It’s illegal to catch or throw the ball. The ball must rebound from the hit.
  5. Ball Crossing the Net outside the Crossing Space. The ball must cross the net within the crossing space. The ball must cross over the net, between the antennae’s and their imaginary extension, and without contacting the ceiling.
  6. Reaching Over the Net. There are official volleyball rules for playing the ball at the net.
  7. Penetration under the Net. It’s permitted for a player to step under the net into the opponent’s court provided that some part of the penetrating hand or foot is in contact with or is directly above the center line.
  8. Contact with the Net. Contact with the net is only a fault if contact is made during the action of playing the ball or if it interferes with play.
  9. Foot Fault. At the moment of service contact or take off for a jump serve, the server must not touch the court or the ground outside the service zone. After contact, he/she may step or land outside the service zone or inside the court.
  10. Attacking Faults. The following are volleyball violations for attacking…
  • A back row player completes an attack hit from the front zone, if at the moment of contact; the ball is entirely above the top of the net.
  • An opponent completes an attack hit on a served ball, when the ball is in the front zone and the ball is entirely above the top of the net.
  • The libero completes an attack hit, if at the moment of contact, the ball is entirely above the top of the net.
  • A player completes an attack hit from higher than the top of the net when the ball is coming from an overhand finger pass by a libero in the front zone.

Blocking within the Opponents Space. A blocker may place his/her hands beyond the net provided this action doesn’t interfere with the opponents play. It’s legal to block beyond the net, provided…

  • The ball would have crossed the net if not touched by a player and no member of the attacking team was in position to make a play.
  • The ball is falling near the net and no member of the attacking team is in position to make a play.
  • Contact with the ball is made after 3 team contacts.